Voice Privacy Experts: Careful, We’re Bugging Ourselves
A cybersecurity executive I talked to recently raised a scenario like this:
You and your cousin swap opinions about a standout basketball player one night. The next day you get an email from your cousin’s friend. He says your cousin told him you’d like this new article about your favorite point guard, and he attaches the link.
Later you find out your working laptop’s been hacked, and some of your employer’s confidential data has been stolen. Your cousin’s “friend” was actually a cybercriminal in Eastern Europe, and by clicking the link he sent, you downloaded his malware. But how did the hacker know the details of your family banter about basketball? You were just shooting the breeze in the den with your cousin, not typing e-mails that could be intercepted.
That’s the kind of hacker exploit that could become more common with the rise of Internet of Things devices equipped with microphones that capture voices around them so they can respond to spoken commands, says Torsten George, an executive at the Sunnyvale, CA-based cybersecurity company RiskSense.
Although we’re used to the idea that smartphones have voice assistants like Apple’s Siri, an increasing number of gizmos such as thermostats, smart TVs, refrigerators, laptops, and voice-enabled hubs such as Amazon Echo and Google Home are also equipped with microphones so they can hear your orders or search queries.
Smartphone users may leave their phones on constantly now so they can give instant commands to Siri or Google Now, a voice assistant for Android devices. Plug-in home devices like Amazon Echo can sit unobtrusively, ready to listen to speech if they’re awakened, George says. In the scenario he raised above, your cousin himself may have forgotten he had one of those small voice-enabled assistants sitting on the desk in the den during your basketball chat.
“There’s not enough awareness that we’re surrounded by a forest of microphones,” George says. Home device networks can be easily hacked, he says, and voice data can come into the hands of cyberattackers.
Who’s most at risk?
At this point, the risk exposure of individuals is not as great as the danger for financial institutions, health care systems, and retailers such as Target, George says. Hackers like to break into networks where they can steal millions of records at one go. The individuals most at risk include corporate executives and military commanders, who become the cyber targets of industrial spies or nations seeking strategic information, he says.
But consumers should still be aware that when they bring voice-enabled devices into their living rooms, cars, and offices, they’re making a trade-off between convenience and the security and privacy of their households, George says.
“Twenty years ago, people were happy to have remote controls,” George says. “Now they don’t even want to push that button any longer.”
Although voice assistants are designed to wake up and listen when the user says a trigger word or phrase such as “Hello Alexa,” a hacker can carry out a remote attack on the device, and install malware that bypasses the need for a wake-up word, George says.
At RiskSense’s office, connected home hubs such as the Amazon Echo are off-limits.
“We are not allowing any Alexa in our work environment,” George says. Default settings are changed on the company’s office video equipment and apps such as Skype to keep microphones and cameras off until someone actively turns them on for a use such as a conference call, he says.
Voice recognition and transcription
Consumers may be lulled into thinking that voice-enabled assistants don’t pose much of a threat because their responses to questions can seem off-base, and even stupid, George says. Users may conclude that the voice recognition function of the device is poor, he says.
But those poor responses are due to flubs by the device’s search function, not its ability to recognize words, George says. Voice recognition accuracy can be up to 99 percent these days, he says. And a user’s commands, perhaps along with conversations, are also funneled into another process—real-time transcription.
“Your voice gets transcribed into written text,” George says. That plain text data file is then easily shared, and it’s searchable by key words, he says. The analysis adds another dimension to the value of each data point. Depending on the strength of privacy controls, it may help your device give you better answers, or help a marketer target a pitch to you.
But a transcript could also be useful for a hacker like your cousin’s “friend,” who needs intel about you to mount a social engineering attack via e-mail.
Law enforcement agencies can search a voice transcript for the mention of terms such as bombs, hacking, or Social Security numbers, George says.
Late last year, homicide investigators in Arkansas pressed Amazon to turn over voice recordings and transcripts from an Amazon Echo in a home where a murder victim was found, the New York Times reported. The law isn’t settled on the privacy rights of homeowners or the legal obligations of tech companies in such cases.
To help tech companies and consumers deal with such issues, and others related to voice interactivity, the Voice Privacy Alliance was founded last year by Alta Associates’ Executive Women’s Forum on Information Security, IT Risk Management and Privacy. The group tackles legal and policy issues, works to raise consumer awareness, and provides a toolkit for developers so they can incorporate security measures into voice-enabled products.
Artificial intelligence: the enhanced value of data points in a larger context
Devices are already getting to know us better and improving their responses through artificial intelligence analysis of our GPS locations, search histories, and other data we volunteer to them, George says.
These devices are gathering details about us as we move through our days and weeks, capturing our habitual patterns, George says. A voice assistant such as Siri may volunteer information you haven’t asked for—such as a traffic snag ahead on your routine route to pick up the kids from school, he says.
“That gives you an indication of what kind of information is being collected on a daily basis,” George says. Voice data is an increasing part of the inputs for this analysis.
Diana Kelley, an IBM executive security advisor who works with companies on their cybersecurity measures, says she’s optimistic that with the right controls, voice capabilities need not be a major threat to data privacy and security.
Within companies, the rise of voice interactivity is just the latest in a series of technology developments that security teams have handled, Kelley says. After the advent of social media, Wi-Fi, and cloud computing, cybersecurity experts have developed processes to vet and procure company equipment, as well as train staff in best practices, she says. And they’re not starting from scratch in voice privacy and security now.
“We’ve had mikes in our smart devices for a number of years,” Kelley says. People may already be used to taking care that their smartphone mikes (as well as cameras) are switched off when they’re not needed. Some voice privacy measures have already become part of data handling standards, such as masking credit card numbers in recorded calls, she says.
The difference these days is more in quantity than in kind, Kelley says.
“Voice interaction really looks like it’s going to be widely adopted,” Kelley says, judging by the consumer demand for connected devices in homes and especially in cars. “Now we’ve got more of them,” Kelley says. “We have to make sure we’ve got protections in each one of them.”
Voice interaction is not only being built into devices, but will also be included as a feature in the apps our devices connect with, such as mapping and direction services and shopping carts, Kelley says.
Kelley sees this as an opportunity for companies to refresh their training on cybersecurity for staffers—whether they’re in a boardroom with a voice-enabled TV, or in their bedrooms where a voice assistant is waiting for their orders.
“Just remember, your device is listening when you wake up,” Kelley says. High-level executives have to consider—do they want to have that conversation in the car, with the phone on? “What they say could potentially be recorded.”
TVs are very common in office lobbies, boardrooms and conference rooms, and many are now voice-enabled, Kelley says.
Should these listening devices be in the office at all? It depends how important it is to watch the news or use the TV for a remote two-way conference. “You have to weigh the business need against that security risk,” Kelley says.
Rather than rule out these devices entirely, security teams follow a list of precautions, Kelley says. They question prospective vendors on the built-in safeguards and security options in their equipment.
For example, is the device’s voice assistant always on, or just listening for a key word to wake up? Can you mute the microphone, so it won’t switch to active listening mode even if you say the key word?
Other questions asked:
Does the device save all your searches, and can you delete them? Is the voice data encrypted when it’s in use, when it’s in transit from one place to another, and when it’s stored?
Where will your information go? A TV may answer a request for a certain video by connecting to a third party app that has a database of movies, Kelley says. Increasingly, such outside apps will be voice-enabled, as these systems of interconnected services are further built out, she says.
While consumers may not have cybersecurity staffs to grill device vendors and change default settings, they can make it clear to manufacturers that they want privacy protections, Kelley says.
“It’s very important for manufacturers to take this seriously,” Kelley says.
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