As one who’s spent a lifetime chasing the quest of a practical, sustainable bioeconomy – I have sympathy for biofuel skeptics. Let’s face it; petroleum is an incumbent that has no match in political or economic strength. But it is hard to deny the convergence of historical and technological trends that suggest a sustainable biofuel might soon be feasible. I have had the privilege of spending the last year in an effort called Sustainable Aviation Fuels Northwest and learned much from over forty stakeholders in the project. Let me offer four observations that give me some optimism about the viability of next generation biofuels.
Serious support for biofuels is very recent. The chemurgy movement (the early 20th century emphasis on biofuels and bioproducts from agriculture) never gained broad political traction. The Energy Security Act of 1980 mentioned biofuels but funding and interest fizzled quickly. It was not until the Farm Bill of 2002 there was an energy title, and serious support began. The last decade’s rapid ascent of Biofuels 1.0 (that being corn-based ethanol and soy-based diesel) was unprecedented. While hindsight suggests energy efficiency, environmental and economic impact could have been better managed, the creation of B1.0 didn’t include those requirements. The spark that ignited growth was the diversification and creation of new markets for a surplus of agricultural commodities while also reducing oil imports and boosting rural economic development. It was a supply-side push.
The biofuels industry emerging today (let’s call it B2.0) has learned from this brief history. First, it is now the consumers (not the producers) of the fuel looking for diversity – they seek a reliably sourced portfolio of biofeedstocks – not one silver bullet. Second, unlike ethanol and biodiesel, these new biofuels are distillates or ‘drop-in’ fuels meaning they can be blended and are compatible with petroleum’s infrastructure of refineries, pipelines, and storage. Third, these consumers are demanding global accepted standards for sustainability. Very pragmatic, in exchange for their backing of these new biofuels, they want assurance the supply chains are net energy positive, that carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced, and they contribute to the environmental, economic, and social health of the region from which they are sourced and used.
Creating a viable B2.0 industry is also attracting talent, perhaps like never before. Biologists who pioneered the human genome like Craig Venter, George Church, even Lee Hood of the Institute for Systems Biology and David Baker of the University of Washington—all noted life science rock stars—have been attracted to the allure and challenge of a sustainable biofuel. Coupled with legacy agricultural land grants, like Washington State University where biofuels never went out of style, the sector is rapidly advancing. Over the past year, among the 10 IPOs in the clean tech space, four are involved with biofuels (Codexis, Solazyme, Amyris, Gevo) and one more is expected, Qteros. A few of these are converting alcohol fuels to distillates, efficiently linking B1.0 to 2.0. Most have valuable co-products and multinational partners. Some might call it a tipping point.
Deserved or not, B1.0 can also be credited with popularizing the food versus fuel debate. I am pleased with this acknowledgment that our fields, forests, and waters have a finite (but growing) capacity to produce biomass. I am disappointed that the issues have been purposely shaped into a false choice.
Regardless of how or where it’s produced, biomass has five primary fates:
Food – eaten in human diets
Feed – grazed, fed, or consumed in animal diets
Fiber -used for textiles, paper, and other products
Fuel – consumed (usually combusted) for its energy content
Functionality – residing in the ecosystem necessary to cycle nutrients and energy
The allocation of biomass among the ‘5F’ fates have been on-going for all of human existence, and always been determined by society. Many a study and book have been written about those cultures where choices were unwise, and history suggests success has only come with … Next Page »
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